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Bihar

About Patna Situated on the banks of the holy river Ganga, Patna, earlier known as Patliputra, is one of the most ancient cities of India. Capital of Bihar, Patna is known for its magnificent past and the historical buildings. Patna began as Pataliputra in the 5th century BC. In the 3rd century BC it became the capital of the Magadh kingdom and the seat of the Indian emperor Ashoka. Patna is the gateway to the Buddhist and Jain pilgrim centers of Vaishali, Rajgir, Nalanda, Bodhgaya and Pawapuri, all located in the state of Bihar.
As an historical figure, his character has to-day a two-fold interest for us: political and religious. He was the most illustrious member of a great and powerful dynasty, which has left indelible traces of its achievements on Indian history, and he was the leader in his own day of a spiritual movement which, spreading far with  profound effect, marked an epoch in the history of the Eastern world, and has exercised a religious influence upon a third of the human race.
Bihar Tourism
It was inevitable that there should be a large admixture of legend and myth in the mass of tradition that has gathered round the name of Ashoka the same is true of all the heroes of antiquity who have impressed themselves on the popular imagination; of the English King Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table, of the good King Alfred, and of St. Louis, the saintly King of France; but a remarkable fact about Ashoka is that we have at our disposal, clearly distinguishable from the almost unlimited amount of myth, a limited but still very considerable amount of authentic and indisputable evidence of a most interesting kind, by which he is brought nearer to us and made more real than any other monarch of ancient days in India. Recently this evidence has been accumulating. The researches of scholars and the excavations of the Archaeological Survey have combined to place at our disposal fresh sources of information, in some cases confirming what had previously been conjecture, and in others adding to the sum of ascertained knowledge new facts of very great value.


Babu Kunwar Singh
Babu Kunwar Singh
Kunwar Singh was born in 1777, Jagdispur, near Arrah in the state of Bihar.  Babu Veer Kunwar Singh one of the leaders of the Indian rising of 1857 belonged to a royal PARMAR Kshatriya (Rajput) house of Jagdispur, a part of Bhojpur old name Sahabad district, Bihar state in India. At the age of 80 years, during India’s First War of Independence (1857), he actively led a select band of armed soldiers against the troops under the command of the East India Company, and also recorded victories in many battles.  He belongs to Panwar(Ujjain Rajputs as they are locally known in Bihar or in and around his birth place). His ancestors belong to the dynasty of the great Raja Vikramaditya as well as Raja Bhoj of Malwa. Babu Kunwar Singh was nearly eighty and in failing health when he was called upon to take up arms. The great warrior that he was, he gave a good fight and harried British forces for nearly a year and remained invincible till the end.Kunwar Singh assumed command of the soldiers who had revolted at Danapur on July 5. In his last battle, fought on April 23, 1858, near Jagdispur, the troops under the control of the East India Company were completely routed.

Aryabhatta
Aryabhatta
Aryabhatta (476-550 A.D. was born in Patliputra in Magadha, modern Patna in Bihar. Many are of the view that he was born in the south of India especially Kerala and lived in Magadha at the time of the Gupta rulers; time which is known as the golden age of India. There is no evidence that he was born outside Patliputra and traveled to Magadha, the centre of education and learning for his studies where he even set up a coaching centre. His first name "Arya" is hardly a south Indian name while "Bhatt" (or Bhatta) is a typical north Indian name even found today specially among the "Bania" (or trader) community. Whatever this origin, it cannot be argued that he lived in Patliputra where he rote his famous treatise the "Aryabhatta-siddhanta" but more famously the "Aryabhatiya", the only work to have survived. It contains mathematical and
astronomical theories that have been revealed to be quite accurate in modern mathematics. For instance he wrote that if 4 is added to 100 and then multiplied by 8 then added to 62,000 then divided by 20,000 the answer will be equal to thecircumference of a circle of diameter twenty thousand. This calculates to 3.1416
close to the actual value Pi (3.14159).

But his greatest contribution has to be zero. His other works include algebra, arithmetic, trigonometry, quadratic equations and the sine table.He already knew that the earth spins on its axis, the earth moves round the sun and the moon rotates round the earth. He talks about the position of the planets in relation to its movement around the sun. He refers to the light of the planets and the moon as reflection from the sun. He goes as far as to explain the eclipse of the moon and the sun, day and night, the contours of the earth, the length of the year exactly as 365 days.He even computed the circumference of the earth as 24835 miles which is close to modern day calculation of 24900 miles.This remarkable man was a genius and continues to baffle many mathematicians of today. His works was then later adopted by the Greeks and then the Arabs.
Dr. Rajendra Prasad

Dr.Rajendra Prasad
Dr. Rajendra Prasad was born in a Kayastha Family in Zeradei village, in the Siwan district under Saran division of Bihar, on 3 December 1884. He was known as "Rajen" to his family and friends.  He was one of the architects of the Indian Republic, having drafted its first constitution and serving as the first president of independent India (26 January 1950-13 May 1962). He secured first in the entrance examination to the University of Calcutta and was awarded Rs.30 per month as a scholarship. He joined the Presidency College in 1902, initially as a science student. After completing his MA in economics, he became a professor of English at the Bhumihar Brahman College in Muzaffarpur.

During the independence movement, he left his law work and joined the Congress Party, playing a prominent role in the Indian Independence Movement. In the year 1916, he joined the High Court of Bihar and Orissa. Later in the year 1917, he was appointed as one of the first members of the Senate and Syndicate of the Patna University. He served as the president of the Constituent Assembly that drafted the first constitution of the Republic, which lasted from 1948 to 1950. He also became the first Minister of Food and Agriculture in the year 1946 in the Interim national Government.

He took an active role in helping the affected people during the 1914 floods that struck Bihar and Bengal. When an earthquake affected Bihar on 15 January 1934, Prasad was in jail. During that period, he passed on the relief work to his close colleague Dr Anugrah Narayan Sinha.He was released two days later and set up Bihar Central Relief Committee on 17 January 1934, and took the task of raising funds to help the people himself.He was elected as the President of the Indian National Congress during the Bombay session in October 1934. He again became the president when Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose resigned in 1939. On 8 August 1942, Congress passed the Quit India Resolution in Bombay which led to the arrest of many Indian leaders. He was arrested from Sadaqat Ashram, Patna and sent to Bankipur Jail.

After the formation of Interim Government of 12 nominated ministers under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru on Sep 2 1946, he got the Food and Agriculture department. Later, he was elected the President of Constituent Assembly on 11 December 1946. Again on 17 November 1947 he became Congress President for a third time after Jivatram Kripalani submitted resignation. Two and a half years after independence, on January 26, 1950, the Constitution of independent India was ratified and Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected the nation's first President.

Ancient history In Bihar

Bihar has a very rich history. It was called Magadha in ancient days. Its capital Patna, known as Pataliputra during the old days, was the center of the Mauryan empire, which ruled the Indian subcontinent between 325 BC-185 BC. Emperor Ashoka was the most famous ruler of this dynasty. Bihar remained an important place of power, culture and education during the next one thousand years. Nalanda and Vikramshila Universities were the world class learning centres. The word "Bihar" has its origin in the Sanskrit word "Vihara", meaning Buddhist Monasteries. After his return from the South Africa, Mahatma Gandhi started the freedom movement in India by his satyagraha in the Champaran district of Bihar against the British , who were forcing the local farmers to plant indigo which was very harmful to the local soil.

After the Battle of Buxar (1765), the British East India Company got the diwani rights (rights to administer and collect revenue, or tax administration / collection) for Bihar, Bengal and Orissa. From this point onwards, Bihar remained a part the Bengal Presidency of the British Raj until 1912, when Bihar was carved out as a separate province. In 1935, certain portions of Bihar were reorganised into the separate state of Orissa. Again, in 2000, 18 administrative districts of Bihar were separated to form the state of Jharkhand.

Muhammad Bin Bakhtiar Khilji, a General of Muhammad Ghori captured Bihar in 12th century. In between, Bihar saw a brief period of glory for six years during the rule of Sher Shah Suri, who was from Sasaram and built the longest road of the Indian subcontinent, the Grand Trunk Road, which starts from Calcutta and ends at Peshawar, Pakistan. During 1557-1576, Akbar, the Mughal emperor, annexed Bihar and Bengal to his empire and made Bihar a part of Bengal. With the decline of Mughals, Bihar passed under the control of Nawabs of Bengal. one of the important state in india.

Nearest Airport: Patna/125Kme expected role of the president as per the constitution. Following the tussle over the enactment of the Hindu Code Bill, he took a more active role in the affairs of the nation.In 1962, after serving twelve years as the president, he announced his decision to retire.After relinquishing the office of the President of India on May 1962, he returned to Patna on 14 May 1962 and preferred to stay in the campus of Bihar Vidyapeeth. He was subsequently awarded the Bharat Ratna, the nation's highest civilian award.

Raj Mahal

Raj Mahal is located on the eastern tassel of Bihar, on the western bank of river Ganga, Raja Maan Singh, the well-known 16th century Rajput common in Akbar's army, founded this city.  The Sangi Dalan built on river bank, is a part of the place of shah shuja, son of Shah Jehan. was built in 1556 to allow emperor Akbar to pray. Jami Masjid - Raj Mahal was built by Raja maan Singh in a combination of the Imperial and Bengal styles. There are number of other monuments in town.

Vikramshila


Vikramshila
Vikramshila situated 252 kms from Patna, in the district of Bhagalpur, is the site of an ancient University, Vikramshila. The university was founded by king Dharmpala, in late 8th century AD. After prosperous for years, it was plundered by invaders around 1200 AD.

Vikramshila University belongs to the Pala period and thus can be assigned to the period between 10th and 12th centuries A.D. The site covers a very extensive area dotted with carved pillars, votive stupas and mounds with remains.

Famous for studies in Tantra, it also bore the imprint of teachings in Buddhism. Close by are the Rajmahal Hills and Pathar Ghat, famous for their Jurassic Age rocks and natural fossils. This place is ideal for Eco-Tourism development.

Lauria Nandangarh
Lauria Nandangarh
Lauriya (district Champaran) contains, besides an inscribed Asokan Pillar, fifteen stupa-mounds. Four of them were excavated in 1904-07 and as two of them yielded a put down of burnt bones with charcoal and a gold leaf with a mother-goddess shape (akin to the one from Piprahwa), they were regarded by the excavator to be vedic burial tumuli.

As an answer of their re-examination in 1935-37, they were definitely accepted to be stupas of mud or mud-bricks with baked-brick revetments (in two cases with actual brick-lining). They were regarded as roughly current with the Piprahwa Stupa on account of the analogous find of the mother-goddess shape on the gold leaf.Nandangarh, about 2 km, from the Asokan Pillar, represents a fortified habitation-site. At one end of the site was excavated a big brick stupa, reared up on multiple polygonal terraces with numerous re-entrant angles. This edifice, of the early on centuries A.D., is the earliest example of a form of terraced stupa, which culminated in the celebrated monuments of Paharpur in East Pakistan and Borobudur in Java, both dating from circa A.D. 800.

Martyr's Memorial, Patna

>Martyr's Memorial, Patna
Life-size statues in front of the aged secretariat compound have been put up in memory of seven brave young men who faced bullets for the freedom of the country and sacrificed their lives in August 1942 in the historic struggle for India's independence during "Quit India" movement. It is a modern sculpture with life dimension statues of the seven martyrs', in front of the Secretariat where they were shot in their attempt to hoist the national tricolor.

Munger Fort

Munger Fort
The most famed and essential of the monuments at Munger is the fort, build on a rocky eminence projecting into the river Ganga which protects it from west and partly from the north, the extra sides being defended by a deep moat. the fort encloses an region of about 222 acres and has a route of 4 kms. It was construct during the time of the early, Mohammedan kings of India.

Khuda Baksh Library

A STORE HOUSE OF ANCIENT MANUSCRIPTS

Khuda Baksh Library
Set up at the turn of the century, the library has a distinguished collection of rare Arabic and Persian manuscripts, It also contains the only books rescued from the plunder of the University of Cordoba in Spain. It is one of the national libraries of India. Originally established in 1891, the Khuda Bakhsh Oriental Library was set up by khuda Baksh Khan, as a public library, out of his family collection of manuscripts. It has been declared as an institution of national importance in 1969 by an act of parliament. The library has a rich collection of over 18,000 Arabic and Persian manuscripts and over 2,000 Mughal and Rajput paintings, besides 1,70,000 printed books. More than 850 audio and 550 video tapes of eminent persons have been prepared. It brings out a quarterly research journal. The library has published critical editions of 64 rarities.

The library has instituted a few fellowships at par with UGC. It has been recognized by seven universities as a centre of research, for awarding the degrees of Ph.D. and D. lit. The library has also instituted a prestigious prize, which carries an amount of Rs 1 lakh and a citation.The Library also possesses a sizeable number of original letters of eminent persons written during their lifetime. It is now managed by a Board, headed by the Governor of Bihar.

Magadh Mahajanapadas


Atharva Veda is the oldest in Magadha. According to the Magadh Kikt Chintamani states to campaign. Magadh Buddhkalin time was a force powerful monarchs. It was located in southern Bihar in northern India in the course of time became the most Sktimsali Mahajanapadas. The checkered history and political and religious hub Viswaj. Mahajanapadas Magadha in the Ganges in the south of the Vindhya Range to the north-east of Champa Pshcim was extended to the Sone River.

Rajgir was the ancient capital of Magadha. The city was surrounded by five hills. In course of time the capital of Magadha was formed in Pataliputra. Sktinsali the then state of Magadha kingdom skills, Watts and Avanti were found in their district. The continuous expansion of Magadha and ancient Magadha in India's history as the history of India.

Magadha empire
Magadha kingdom expanded north of the Ganga, Sone and South Jagnlachchhadit Pshci in the plateau state was up to. Patna and Gaya districts of the region was known in ancient Magadha. Magadh ancient political rise, decline and social - is the focal point of religious awakening. Was a contemporary of Buddha Rajtntrh Magadh Sktijkali and organized. Magadha Magadha progressively grew in course of time and history (the development of Indian culture and civilization as head of the column) in the entire history of India.

The rise of Magadha Empire is an important place in the family - Brhdrath descent

It was the oldest dynasty. According to the Mahabharata and the Puranas Jrasandh Chediraj vasu's father and the son of the Brhdrath Brhdrath founded the dynasty. The descendants of the ten kings, which Brhdrath Jrasandh majestic emperor son. Jrasandh the Kashi, skills, Chedi, Malwa, videh, organ, Wing, Kalinga, defeated the kings of Kashmir and Gandhara. Jrasandh capital of the dynasty Brhdrath Giriwrj Vshumti or formed on or basilica. Jrasandh Kansa, the ruler of Mathura from his daughter's wedding. Kansa was the uncle of Lord Krishna. Pandv son with the help of Lord Krishna Bhima killed in a duel to Jrasandh. After her son was made ruler Sahadeva. The last king of this dynasty was Ripunjay. Ripunjay killed his son by his courtiers made the king Pulik minister. Then another court 'Mahiy' the Pulik and his son on the throne by killing his son Bimbisar. Brhdrath dynasty in 600 BC a new dynasty was established.
During the history of Bihar as per section can be divided into two parts -

1. Pre-historic times

Vibhinna parts of Bihar in prehistoric times lived in the primates. Etc. associated with human and material evidence received immediate Vibhinni types. Evidence from the sites they Munger, Patna and has been. The Sonepur, Checr (Vaishali), maner (Patna) are remarkable. Plistosin period furnishings and tools made of stone Vibhinno places in Bihar have been received. Cirod and Sonepur (was) black and red Mridband Age (Harappan era) have been uncovered. Harappan era Oriam evidence (Bhagalpur), Rajgir and Vaishali are met.

Prehistoric Bihar can be studied by the following ages -
East Stone Age (10,000 BC. Before) - the early Stone Age remains of the star, ax, knife, Khurpi, Rjrppa (Hazaribagh, Bihar earlier) and Sanjay Valley (Singhbhum) are met. The evidence Jetian (was), Munger and excavations in Nalanda district has received in order. Intermediate Stone Age (10,000 BC. To 4000 BC.) - It remains primarily in the Munger district of Bihar have been received. The evidence consists of small pieces of stone and wielding sharp objects, the tools are received.

New Stone Age (4000 BC. To 2500 BC.) - The period of the historical evidence have been found in the precision instruments made of stone. There are also accessories made of bones. The relics in north Bihar Cirod (Saran district) and Checr (Vaishali) are received. Copper Stone Age (2500 BC. To 1000 BC.) - Cirod and Sonepur (was) the black and red Mridband is generally considered characteristic of the Harappan civilization. The remains of this era in Bihar Cirod (Saran), Checr (Vaishali), Sonepur (was) the maner (Patna) are received. Mridband and pieces of pottery from the excavation of physical culture is a reflection of that. Bihar culture was developed in this era.Making and cooking and storing food Mridband purpose was to learn to use. The evidence we could call pre-history of Bihar Age unknown.

2. Historic Period (1000 BC. To 600 BC.)
This period is considered post-Vedic period. Aryikrn in Bihar has started from the same period. Bihar oldest description of the Atharvaveda (10 th -8 th century BC.) And Pancbis Brahmin (eighth - the sixth century BC.) Get into. These texts Braty term refers to Bihar. It is estimated that at the time of the creation of Atharva Veda the Aryans entered in Bihar. 800 BC. Satapatha Brahmana composed by Aryans in the Gangetic valley and cut and burn forests to clear information.

The Rigveda states Kikt Bihar. The Rigveda is a discussion of Kikt area Premgnd unfriendly ruler, while the cultural dominance of the Aryan Brahmins start time of the creation of texts. Satapatha Brahmin, Brahmin Pancbis, Gupth Brahmin, Aitareya Arnyk, Kaushitki Arnyk, Sankyayn Arnyk, Wajasneyi code, the events described in the Mahabharata, and get information from the North Vadikkalin Bihar. Better information in the context of Bihar mythology, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata are found.

Texts available proofs of the Aryans settled in the Magadha region in the organ culture of the Aryans expanded. According to mythology, said Kikt Warah an impure state, while Air Purana, Padma Purana, the mason, Panpan etc. have been classified as sacred places. Air the area in Mythology "Secrets of fights," said.
Videh in Aryan Brahmins to settle in Satapatha has been discussed. Madhav Gautam Rahugn videh the fire with their priest chasing perennial river (modern Gandak) description of reach.Mld and compassion of Valmiki Ramayana has been mention of the word where Tadikakshsi to Patna was killed.

Old Republic - Ancient Bihar (Buddhkalin at the time) about 10 republics emerged in the Ganges Valley. The Republic - (1) of Kapilavastu Shakya, (2) Sumsumar part of the mountain, (3) of Kesputr Kalam, (4) of Ramgram Koliy, (5) Kushimara the Mall, (6) Mall of Pava, (7) Pipplivan the Mari, (8) Aykalp the Buli, (9) Licchavi of Vaishali, (10) videh of Mithila.

Timelines In Bihar emperor


560-480 BCE: Buddha
Before 325 BCE: Nanda clan in Magadha, Licchavis in Vaishali
325-185 BCE: Maurya Dynasty
250 BCE: 3rd Buddhist Council
185 BCE-80 CE: Sunga Dynasty
80 - 240: Regional kings
240 - 600: Gupta Dynasty
600 - 650: Harsha Vardhana
750 - 1200: Pala Dynasty
1200: Muhammad of Ghori's army, destroys the universities at Nalanda and Vikramshila
1200-1250: Decline of Buddhism
1250-1526: Ruled by Delhi Sultanate (Muslim Turks - Tughluqs, Sayyids, Lodis)
1526-1540: Babur defeats last Delhi sultan, establishes Mughal Empire
1540-1555: Suri dynasty captures empire from Mughals (including Shershah Suri who built the Grand Trunk Road)
1526-1757: Mughal dynasty resumes
1757-1857: British East India Company rule
1857: Revolt of 1857
1857-1947: British Raj rule
1912: Province of Bihar & Orissa separated from Bengal
1935: Bihar and Orissa become separate provinces
1947: Indian Independence; Bihar becomes a state
2000: Bihar divided into two states - north part remains "Bihar", southern becomes Jharkhand

Ashutosh Tiwari